Lets start at the basics on Piano

minor 3rd - 3 semitones. major 3rd - 4 semitones


TTSTTTS - major

minor major Diminished Augmented

Perfect - 4,5,8 (cannot be minor or major) all others can be eg minor 3rd

natural minor harmonic minor


“Music Theory” - the language behind music



  • faster vibrations - higher note

  • A - 110 Hz (vibrations per second)

  • Only 12 notes - that sound good together.

  • accidentals:
  • sharp - higher eg F#
  • flat - lower eg Gb (same as F#, but called this in some situations)

  • octave - double the vibrations? ie interval between one musical pitch and another with double its frequency. eg 100Hz (G2) to 200Hz and an octave lower would be 50Hz.

  • A above middle C is tuned to 440 Hz.

  • Semitone - half step. increment between each individual note.
  • Tone - whole step. increment between 2 half steps.

Music is build around the relationships of these notes.

  • Key - a common combination of notes. A guide of which notes will sound good together.

  • eg Major Key - which has 7 notes
  • Minor Key - 7 notes

C Major Scale

  • key - home base of a piece of music
  • scale - sequence of notes arranged in ascending or descending order

often we use the same scale as the key

but in blues we use Emajor as the key, but blues solos happen on E pentatonic minor

Major spacings: TTSTTTS - formula of a major scale where a Tone is 2 half steps.


1,2,3,4,5 second (degree), third

In A Major A B C# D E F# G# A

  • we don’t use Db etc.. as then D would appear twice.

In A# Major A# B# (it is a C!) but then easier to call the root a Bb Bb C


do 5 different root notes and do their major scales

  • 1 flat - F with Bb (D min - rel minor)
  • 1 sharp - G with F#
  • 2 flats - Bb with Bb and Eb
  • 2 sharps - D with F# C#

Part 2 - Chords

Do most of the work of setting the emotion of the song


root of Cmaj - C 3rd of Cmaj - E 5th of Cmaj - G

aka Triad

Major and Minor

These are chord types

Major triad is 4 semitones, then 3 semitones apart Minor triad is 3 then 4

Move 3 semitones down and you’ll get relative (natural) minor scale… ie relative minor scale starts on 6th degree of relative major scale.

Diminished is 3 then 3 in C major.. if you do a triad shape, then the B is a dim


1,2,3,4,5,6 - make triads out of these in different scales

eg he is using Amaj!!!

naming of scale degrees

First 6 triads of a major scale

1 : I (major) 2 : ii (minor) 3 : iii (minor) 4 : IV (major) 5 : V (major) 6 : vi (minor)

I V vi IV C G Am F

Creep Chord Progression


The III could be thought of as a Secondary Dominant

eg in G

I ii iii IV V vi G Am Bm C D Em

The dominant (V) of Em Key is B. Which resolves back to the their relative tonic chord ie root I ie Em

## bass chifre

  • figured bass

G 6 4


please teach me music theory as a beginner learning to play piano

Beginner’s Guide to Music Theory for Piano

1. Understand the Piano Keyboard

  • Keys: Learn the names of the white and black keys.
  • Octaves: A series of eight notes, from one C to the next.
  • Black Keys: Sharps (#) and flats (b) of the white keys, grouped in twos and threes.

2. Learn to Read Sheet Music

  • Staff: Five lines and four spaces representing different notes.
  • Clefs: Treble clef (G clef) for higher notes; Bass clef (F clef) for lower notes.
  • Notes: Placement on the staff indicates pitch.
  • Ledger Lines: Extra lines for notes outside the staff range.

3. Understand Rhythm and Timing

  • Note Values: Whole notes, half notes, quarter notes, etc.
  • Rests: Symbols for silence of specific durations.
  • Time Signatures: Beats per measure (e.g., 4/4 time, 3/4 time).

4. Scales and Key Signatures

  • Major and Minor Scales: Series of notes creating specific sounds or moods.
  • Key Signatures: Sharps or flats indicating the key of the music.
  • Circle of Fifths: A tool for key signatures and their relationships.

5. Chords and Harmony

  • Basic Chords: Triads consisting of a root, third, and fifth.
  • Chord Progressions: Sequences of chords as a harmonic base for melodies.
  • Inversions: Playing chord notes in a different order.

6. Basic Music Theory Terms

  • Dynamics: Indications for loudness or softness.
  • Tempo: Speed of the music.
  • Articulation: How notes are played (e.g., legato, staccato).

7. Ear Training and Sight Reading

  • Ear Training: Identifying intervals, chords, and rhythms by ear.
  • Sight Reading: Reading and playing new music accurately.

8. Practice Regularly

  • Consistency: Key to progress.
  • Slow Practice: Focus on accuracy, then increase speed.
  • Variety: Include scales, chords, and pieces in practice.

9. Explore Different Genres

  • Try classical, jazz, pop, etc., to learn unique styles and techniques.

10. Consider Professional Guidance

  • Personalized instruction and feedback from a teacher.


  • Books: Beginner music theory books for pianists.
  • Online Courses: Websites like Udemy, Coursera, or YouTube.
  • Apps: For ear training, sight-reading, and theory exercises.