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I’ve used ASP.NET (Core) Security and Identity for over a decade.

This Twitter thread sums it up…Identity is hard! And ASP.NET hasn’t a great answer (IMO)

I made time to think about security in more detail for my SaaS company. I’ve got a basic set of requirements, so I want a simple implementation.

This is the first blog post where I will cover:

  • Nomenclature
  • Why Cookie (Forms based) Authentication
  • Simple Authorisation (no Roles)
  • Role based Authorisation
  • Login / Logout forms
  • Remember me
  • Redirect to login form if try to access any secured page then return URL

Part 1 Source code - OnlyAuthentication

Part 2 Role Based Source code here

Scaffolded out ASP.NET Core default identity sample is here - MS Docs on how to scaffold page here

Part 3 and 4 Source - Using Postgres

In Early 2020 I wrote articles on using the standard Authentication and Authorisation in ASP.NET Core 3.1, and never published them. They felt overly complex for my needs. Early 2020 External Authentication again not published as complex and I didn’t need.

OSR4Rights open source project contains latest thoughts on identity - 31st July 2021.


In my application I’m using these terms:

  • User - email, role_id, password_hash, verified

  • Role
    • Tier1 (my free tier, but need to be a successfully registered and active account)
    • Tier2 (paid tier, need to be successfully registered)
    • Admin (me)
  • Security - How to keep the application secure and the correct user sees the correct data

  • Identity - ie Microsoft.AspNetCore.Identity.UI that supports login functionality. Manage users, passwords, pofile data, roles, claims, token, email confirmation and more.

  • Authentication - User provides credentials that are then compared to those stored in a db ie determining the user’s identity.

  • Authorisation - What the user is allowed to do (ie the Role they have)

My use case is a SaaS products (I make tools to make sure websites are working). I’m not using JWT tokens (yet) as my app is light on JavaScript.

Use a Password manager to keep all my passwords

It is simple to implement, and as a SaaS business owner I want things to work well (In the early days of Stackoverflow most of their support tickets were on identity)

Cookie authentication without Identity on MS Docs which links to a good sample project in ASP.NET Docs

Essentially start with a blank ASP.NET Core Razor pages project, then can add in config options

// ConfigureServices method

// persist cookies to disk so that if server restarts it can read them
// and people wont have to login again if they have pressed remember me
// create a directory for keys if it doesn't exist
// it'll be created in the root, beside the wwwroot directory
var keysDirectoryName = "Keys";
var keysDirectoryPath = Path.Combine(_hostEnvironment.ContentRootPath, keysDirectoryName);
if (!Directory.Exists(keysDirectoryPath)) Directory.CreateDirectory(keysDirectoryPath);

    .PersistKeysToFileSystem(new DirectoryInfo(keysDirectoryPath))


// NO don't use Strict!
// Had issues with iPhone Chrome not working
// As we're not using OAuth2 we can set the cookie same-site attribute to strict
//app.UseCookiePolicy(new CookiePolicyOptions { MinimumSameSitePolicy = SameSiteMode.Strict });
app.UseCookiePolicy(new CookiePolicyOptions { MinimumSameSitePolicy = SameSiteMode.Lax });

SO Question on Chrome iPhone problem

SO Question on persisting cookies on redeploy / server boot

Then we need to patch in the login form etc.. copy it from here.

I’m a fan of Serilog and using Kestrel when developing so I can see an output like this:

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Also in the source I’ve simplified the pages ie not using the in built logger to reduce code.

Authorization Attribute

Using the Authorize attribute on a PageModel class ensures that the user is Logged In.

using Microsoft.AspNetCore.Authorization;
using Microsoft.AspNetCore.Mvc.RazorPages;

namespace OnlyAuthentication.Web.Pages
    public class PrivacyModel : PageModel
        public void OnGet() { }

This makes sure that someone has to be logged in to view the privacy page

So that is it - we can new ensure that a User is logged in before they can see a page.

Part 2 - Role based Authorization

MS Docs - Introduction to Authorisation

Part 2 Role Based Source code here

For my final application I want to have something like this:

  • Role
    • Tier1 (my free tier, but need to be a successfully registered and logged in)
    • Tier2 (paid tier)
    • Admin (me)

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All pages now have optional Role protection

using CookieDave.Web.Data;
using Microsoft.AspNetCore.Mvc.RazorPages;
using static CookieDave.Web.Data.CDRole;

namespace CookieDave.Web.Pages
    // Strongly typed Roles are needed to view this page
    [AuthorizeRoles(Tier1, Tier2, Admin)]
    public class Tier1RoleNeeded : PageModel
        public void OnGet() { }

public class AuthorizeRolesAttribute : AuthorizeAttribute
    public AuthorizeRolesAttribute(params string[] roles) => Roles = string.Join(",", roles);

static class CDRole
    public const string Tier1 = "Tier1";
    public const string Tier2 = "Tier2";
    public const string Admin = "Admin";

And to programmatically see the Role Claims we can:

using System.Security.Claims;
using CookieDave.Web.Data;
using Microsoft.AspNetCore.Mvc.RazorPages;
using static CookieDave.Web.Data.CDRole;

namespace CookieDave.Web.Pages
    [AuthorizeRoles(Tier1, Tier2, Admin)]
    public class CrawlModel : PageModel
        public string? Message { get; set; }

        public void OnGet()
            var roleClaims = User.FindAll(ClaimTypes.Role);

            Message = "Role claims are: ";
            foreach (var claim in roleClaims)
                // Tier1, Tier2, Admin etc...
                Message += claim.Value + " ";

To see how I give a different user a Claim, look inside of Login.cshtml.cs file which will look something like:

 public async Task<IActionResult> OnPostAsync(string? returnUrl = null)
     ReturnUrl = returnUrl;

     if (ModelState.IsValid)
         var user = await AuthenticateUser(conn, Input.Email, Input.Password);

         if (user == null)
             ModelState.AddModelError(string.Empty, "Invalid login attempt.");
             return Page();

         var claims = new List<Claim>
             new Claim(ClaimTypes.Name, user.Email),
             //new Claim("FullName", user.FullName),
             new Claim(ClaimTypes.Role,  user.CDRole)

         var claimsIdentity = new ClaimsIdentity(claims, CookieAuthenticationDefaults.AuthenticationScheme);

         Log.Information($@"CDRole: {user.CDRole}");
         Log.Information($@"Remember me: {Input.RememberMe}");

         var authProperties = new AuthenticationProperties
             //AllowRefresh = <bool>,
             // Refreshing the authentication session should be allowed.

             //ExpiresUtc = DateTimeOffset.UtcNow.AddMinutes(10),
             // The time at which the authentication ticket expires. A 
             // value set here overrides the ExpireTimeSpan option of 
             // CookieAuthenticationOptions set with AddCookie.

             IsPersistent = Input.RememberMe, // false is default
             //IsPersistent = true,
             // Whether the authentication session is persisted across 
             // multiple requests. When used with cookies, controls
             // whether the cookie's lifetime is absolute (matching the
             // lifetime of the authentication ticket) or session-based.

             //IssuedUtc = <DateTimeOffset>,
             // The time at which the authentication ticket was issued.

             //RedirectUri = <string>
             // The full path or absolute URI to be used as an http 
             // redirect response value.

         await HttpContext.SignInAsync(
             new ClaimsPrincipal(claimsIdentity),

         Log.Information($"User {user.Email} CDRole: {user.CDRole} logged in at {DateTime.UtcNow}");

         // creates a 302 Found which then redirects to the resource
         return LocalRedirect(returnUrl ?? "/");

     // Something failed. Redisplay the form.
     return Page();

Currently I only need one Role per User.

If you don’t get the correct Role, you’re redirected to to AccessDenied:

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This can be changed to another page but I’ve kept with the convention.

Part 3 - Testing

I’ve got a blog post in this series on ASP.NET Core Web Testing which goes into more detail on the testing here.

To aid in simplicity I’ve intentionally left

  • Anonymous browsing enabled by default
  • Attribute based Role based Authorization on each page

I like this as it leaves the code much less cluttered, but we have to be careful as the defaults are open on each page, so lets put tests on

Integration Testing ASP.NET Core Applications: Best Practices by Steve Gordon is an excellent Pluralsight course, and I’m using the strategies discussed there.

In summary I’m testing:

  • HealthCheckTests - /healthcheck responds with a 200, not redireted, and no caching
  • Pages/HomePageTests - should give a 200 and an H1 with “Welcome to CookieDave”
  • GeneralPageTests - all anonymous pages work, not redirected, correct media type text/html
  • ErrorTests - /nothere page should give a status code of 404 and a friendly custom message
  • AuthenticationTests - all pages requiring authentication should give a 302Redirect to /account/login
  • Pages/Tier1NeededTests - If logged user has Role of Tier1, Tier2 or Admin then they should be able to view
  • Pages/Tier2NeededTests - If logged user has Role of Tier2 or Admin then they should be able to view
  • Enquiry - Post Form testing a XSS Antiforgery token.. it should work

Part 4 - Persistence (Database)

It has been so worthwhile not having persistence whilst understanding my needs for Identity (Parts 1 - 3 above). It has made the code much easier to reason about and learn how it works.

Storing passwords in a database is a big topic so I’ve split it out into another article.

Configuration and Hosting Environments to get the correct connection strings etc.. for correct environments

Testing becomes more intersting too with persistence - much more detail here - ASP.NET Core Web Testing

Further Reading

A better way to handle authorisation - Jon P Smith

User Roles and Permissions on Drupal

Andrew Lock has a great tutorial on how to scaffold out, then only use the relevant bit.


I’ve got 4 more articles coming delving into Testing, Configuration, Storing Passwords, and Razor Pages.

Learning how to do a simple Cookie based Identity based site with just the parts I need feels really freeing. I’ve now got great tests, great certainty on my apps security, and a simple codebase..